Even though bunions are a common foot deformity, there are misconceptions about them. Many people may unnecessarily suffer the pain of bunions for years before seeking treatment. What Is a Bunion? Bunions are often described as a bump on the side of the big toe. But a bunion is more than that. The visi¬ble [...]
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How Does a Bone Heal? All broken bones go through the same healing process. This is true whether a bone has been cut as part of a surgical procedure or fractured through an injury. The bone healing process has three overlapping stages: inflammation, bone production, and bone remodeling. Inflammation starts immediately after the bone is fractured [...]
A black, purple, or brownish discoloration under or involving a toenail is frequently due to trauma to the toe nail, such as when something is dropped on the toe. The color results from a blood clot or bleeding under the nail, and may involve the entire nail or just a small portion of it. This [...]
Athlete's foot is a skin infection caused by fungus. A fungal infection may occur on any part of the body; on the foot it is called athlete’s foot, or tinea pedis. Fungus commonly attacks the feet because it thrives in a dark, moist, warm environment such as a shoe. Fungal infections are more common in warm [...]
What Is an Ankle Sprain? An ankle sprain is an injury to one or more ligaments in the ankle, usually on the outside of the ankle. Ligaments are bands of tissue—like rubber bands—that connect one bone to another and bind the joints together. In the ankle joint, ligaments provide stability by limiting side-to-side movement. Some [...]
What is an Ankle Fracture? A fracture is a partial or complete break in a bone. Fractures in the ankle can range from the less serious avulsion injuries (small pieces of bone that have been pulled off) to severe shattering-type breaks of the tibia, fibula, or both. Ankle fractures are common injuries that are most [...]
What Is Acute Inflammation? Inflammation is the body's normal protective response to an injury, irritation, or surgery. This natural "defense" process brings increased blood flow to the area, resulting in an accumulation of fluid. As the body mounts this protective response, the symptoms of inflammation develop. These include: Swelling Pain Increased warmth and redness of the [...]
Orthotics Orthotics are shoe inserts that are intended to correct an abnormal or irregular walking pattern and can help prevent foot pain. Orthotics are not truly or solely “arch supports,” although some people use those words to describe them, and they perhaps can best be understood with those words in mind. They perform functions that [...]
What is the Achilles Tendon? A tendon is a band of tissue that connects a muscle to a bone. The Achilles tendon runs down the back of the lower leg and connects the calf muscle to the heel bone. Also called the "heel cord," the Achilles tendon facilitates walking by helping to raise the heel [...]
What Is the Achilles Tendon? A tendon is a band of tissue that connects a muscle to a bone. The Achilles tendon runs down the back of the lower leg and connects the calf muscle to the heel bone. Also called the "heel cord," the Achilles tendon facilitates walking by helping to raise the heel [...]